Browse "Earth Sciences"

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Archaeology

The archaeological record is sometimes divided into historic and prehistoric periods, depending on the availability of written sources. In Canada, the prehistoric record extends back as much as 30 000 years (see Prehistory) in unglaciated portions of the northern Yukon.

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Archaeology in Québec

One of the most important events of this period was the creation of the Société d'archéologie préhistorique du Québec (SAPQ). It brought together a dynamic group of volunteers, moved by their desire to give Québec archaeology the highest possible standards.

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Biogeography

Ecology is subdivided into 3 fields of study: autecology (relations of individual species or populations to their milieu), synecology (composition of living communities) and dynecology (processes of change in related communities).

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British Columbia Eocene Fossils

Palaeontological and geological studies of these deposits go back about 130 years. These include work carried out by George Mercer Dawson in 1890 as part of his survey of British Columbia for the Geological Survey of Canada, with occasional research published in the 1920s and 1930s.

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Burgess Shale Fossils

The fossils from Burgess Shale are more than 500 million years old. About 140 species of marine invertebrates have been discovered. They include sponges, sea worms and tiny "sea monsters" such as the 5-eyed Opabinia and the Hallucigenia with its 7 pairs of stilt-like spines and 7 tentacles.

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CESAR

The main objective of the multidisciplinary expedition was to carry out a geological survey of the ridge. Researchers, therefore, brought a veritable geotechnical arsenal to bear on the polar ice to gather seismic, gravimetric, bathymetric and other data.

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Canadian Geographic

Canadian Geographic is the bimonthly magazine of the Royal Canadian Geographical Society (RCGS), which was founded in 1929 under stimulus from geologist Charles CAMSELL and explorer Joseph B. TYRRELL, who served as the society's first honorary president.

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Dating in Archaeology

 For those researchers working in the field of human history, the chronology of events remains a major element of reflection. Archaeologists have access to various techniques for dating archaeological sites or the objects found on those sites.

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Fossil

  Fossil [Lat fossilis, "dug up"], trace of an ancient animal or plant preserved in the Earth's crust. Palaeontology is the modern, scientific study of fossils, but these curious objects have attracted attention since ancient times.

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Fossil Animals

The first animals were microscopic in size and left no known fossil remains. The oldest animal fossils occur in sediments deposited under shallow equatorial seas over 600 million years ago.

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Fossil Plants

"Plant" refers to familiar land plants, and also to aquatic plants, mosses, liverworts and algae plants. Although not technically plants, fungi and bacteria are often included. Palaeobotany is the study of ancient plant life using fossil evidence. Plant fossils are found coast-to-coast in Canada, from 45-million-year-old mosses in British Columbia to fossil forests on Axel Heiberg and Ellesmere islands in the Canadian Arctic.